Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction

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Cell and systemic physiology, immunophysiology, neuroscience, and pharmacology are the major themes of research of the department. FREE handbook Our expert-reviewed handbook is full of facts, interaction hints, and discussion questions to support learning in this app, in the classroom or at home. It is the study of structure and how different organs relate to one another in a body. anatomy - The science that deals with the form and structure of organic bodies; anatomical structure or organization Veterinary assisting is an entry level-position in a veterinary facility.

Pages: 564

Publisher: W B Saunders Co (July 1987)

ISBN: 0721614035

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It will also help in understanding the anatomy later in this page when we show you actual anatomic structures of the dogs heart , source: Physiological Business of Small Animal Medication read here. They control the body's circulatory strain, liquid adjust, and parity of salts, and the kidneys additionally deliver hormones which trigger different physiological reactions Miller's Guide to the Dissection of the Dog The chickens frequency range and discrimination of frequencies is similar to man's Clinical Anatomy & Physiology download for free Clinical Anatomy & Physiology for. This book contains 16 chapters covering fundamental concepts like organic chemistry, body organisation and the cell and then the systems of the body. The Generic Animal Drug and Patent Restoration act requires that each sponsor of an approved animal drug must submit to the FDA certain information regarding patents held for the animal drug or its method of use Veterinary Endocrinology and read epub The outer layer of the cerebrum is called gray matter, the inner portion, white matter. We often hear the terms “gray matter” and “white matter” in radiology reports or when viewing scans with our neurosurgeons. Grade III and IV intraventicular hemorrhages (IVH) as well as periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) can cause damage to the brain tissue, and can lead to hydrocephalus. The cerebral hemispheres are divided into four sections or lobes: the frontal lobe, responsible for thinking, making judgments, planning, decision-making and conscious emotions, the Parietal Lobe, mainly associated with spatial computation, body orientation and attention, the Temporal Lobe, concerned with hearing, language and memory, and the Occipital Lobe, mainly dedicated to visual processing Anatomy of Domestic Animals: Systemic & Regional Approach Anatomy of Domestic Animals: Systemic &.

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The pH of pure water is neutral as it gets in physiology, a safe situation for structural molecules Handbook of Platelet download for free Compare and contrast the structures of the stomach and large intestines of carnivores versus herbivores. fx for both stomachs are the same: breaks down large molecules (such as from food) to smaller ones so that they can eventually be absorbed from the small intestine;can produce and secrete about 2 to 3 liters of gastric acid; absorbing some ions, water, and some lipid soluble compounds such as alcohol, aspirin, and caffeine; simply a food storage cavity carnivore/simple stomach: roughly j-shaped; essentially a large, dilated tube with 6 regions: esophageal region (most cranial and contain cardia), cardia (contains mucous glands that secrete mucus but not digestive enzymes), fundus (forms bulk of stomach, contains most of the gastric glands that produce digestive gastric juices which contains large amounts of HCl and pepsin (digestive enzyme) that begins breakdown of protien; lining of stomach secretes a thick layer of mucus that protects it from harsh acid and pepsin), body (distensible area situated in middle portion of stomach), antrum, and pyloric antrum (muscle sphincter, the pylorus, which helps regulate the passage of food from stomach into small intestines) compound/ruminant stomach: swallow their food and regurgitate it back thru esophagus into mouth to chew on it again (called rumination); diff. bec. designed to digest plant material; have 1 stomach with four chambers--1.reticulum; smallest; mucosa has a honeycomb pattern of folds that fx to increase surface area and provides greater area for absorption of nutrients 2.rumen:largest part of forestomach; takes up most of left side; most imp. part of ruminant stomach bc where fermentation occurs (bacteria enzymes act on plant material to break down the polysaccharide cellulose--the primary part of plant fiber-and volatile fatty acid, proteins, and vitamins are produced that can be used) 3.omasum: ball-shaped cavity with numerous muscular folds; VFAs not absorbed in rumen are absorbed in omasum; bicarbonate ions and some moisture are removed from ingesta 4.abomasum; known as "true stomach" and very similar to simple stomach in organization and fx; first 3 chambers called forestomach Describe the structure and digestive functions of the salivary glands, pancreas, and liver. salivary glands: located thru out oral cavity (tongue, inside of lips and cheeks, below tongue); are very small, consisting of cluster of cells that produce saliva and a small tube called a duct that carries the saliva from secreting cells to oral cavity's surface; fx:1.moistens food to make it easier to chew and form a bolus 2.keeps lining of oral cavity moist 3.wash particles over the taste buds for sensation of taste 4.kills some, but not many, bacteria liver:plays a major role in metabolism and has a fx in glycogen storage, plasma protein synthesis, and detoxification; produces bile, an alkaline compound which aids in digestion, via the emulsification of lipids;a soft, pinkish-brown "boomerang shaped" organ Describe the structural and functional characteristics of the organs of the upper and lower respiratory tracts. upper:consists of the nostrils (where most air enters; constructed mostly of cartilage and thick stratified sqamous epithelium)-> nasal passages (air passing thru upper resp. system is moistened by secretions of goblet cells (so alveoli don't dry out), filtered by cilia and mucus on surface and warmed by heat radiating from the nasal mucosa)->pharynx (work with pharynx to keep food from entering resp. system), larynx (prevents food and liquid from entering lower resp. tract; composed of cartilage plates of varying sizes covered w/a layer of pseudostratified columanar epithelium), and trachea (series of rings of cartilage called tracheal rings that are connected by soft connective tissue to form at tube--c shaped lower:comprised of lungs that contain bronchi, bronchioles, resp. bronchioles, alveoli, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and connective tissue that holds them all together; most parts designed to simply transport air from outside the body to lungs; alveoli are primary functional units of resp. system and are responsible for talking O2 from air and transferring to bloodstream and help body eliminate wastes from blood by transferring wastes from bloodstream to air that is exhaled; as you travel down bronchial tree, diameter decreases; thin layer of fluid is present in alveolus and contains a substance, surfactant, that contains a lipid that helps decrease surface tension of the fluid lining alveoli and resp. bronchioles and allows lungs to expand with less effort; surface of lungs is covered with thin layer of elastic connective tissue and a single layer of flattened epithelial cells, mesothelial cells, called the pleura; btwn the lungs and thoracic cavity is pleural space and contains only a very small amount of watery fluid that lubricates the lungs so they can slide over the thoracic wall->diaphragm Describe how the respiratory system supplies oxygen to cells, including both the physical and chemical processes involved in respiration. physical:when animal breathes in, the diaphragm contracts and moves caudally (increases length of thoracic cavity); external muscles and intercostal muscles help by pulling ribs cranially and laterally which moves sternum farther from spine (increases depth of thoracic cavity); both increases volume of thorax and increase generates negative pressure which causes air to enter lungs via upper resp. system until pressure of alveoli equals that of outside air--this is inspiration and an active process; expiration is mostly a passive process--muscles pulling on ribs and diaphragm relax and elastic nature of intercostal muscles and diaphragm cause them to return to resting position which decreases volume of thoracic cavity; elastic tissue cause lungs to snap back into resting position and create positive pressure and the air moves out of the lungs and into the atmosphere chemical:purpose of gas exchange is to take O2 into body and eliminate CO2 from body; gas exchange is the diffusion of gas from area of higher conc. to area of lower conc.; O2 moves from the air, dissolves in the alveolar wall, travels across the wall, and crosses the wall of the capillary where it dissolves into the blood and is taken into RBC for distribution to cells; C02 travels in opposite direction; each gas acts independantly of each other and can occur at the same time in the same alveolus; gas exchange is a passive process of diffusion; several factors govern gas exchange including physical characteristics of gases, rate and depth of respiration, and structure of alveoli Explain how the process of respiration is controlled. resp. center is area of nerve cells located in the brain's medulla oblongata and pons; various parts control inspiration, expiration, and rate and depth of breathing; these nerve cells must coordinate muscles that expand the chest, open the larynx, and end the inspiration to allow passive expiration to occur most of the resp. center's regulation is chemical in origin; level of CO2 in blood is crucial to control of resp.; it is a waste gas produced as a byproduct of cellular resp. and metabolism ans as the level of CO2 increases, breathing becomes more frequent and deep to eliminate more CO2; resp. center has sensors that detect level of CO2 in blood vessels passing thru it and is call chemosensitive area hypothalamus: signals an area of resp. center called panting center which increases rate of resp., which increases replacement of alveolar air with new, cooler air to cool dog off Identify the heart's gross anatomy, including the pericardium and valves , source: Ruminant Physiology: Digestion, Metabolism, Growth and Reproduction

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